Emerytura? Jaka będzie?

Wiele razy zastanawiałem się jaka będzie wysokość mojej emerytury i jaki będzie standard mojego życia na emeryturze. Co jakiś czas przewijają się w mediach dyskusje dotyczące przyszłych emerytur, a wnioski nigdy nie są optymistyczne.

Pierwsze zmiany systemu emerytalnego wprowadzone w 1999 r. (utworzenie OFE) dawały światełko w tunelu, myślałem że jak będę  uczciwie pracował (czyli będą od mojego wynagrodzenia odprowadzane składki na ubezpieczenie społeczne) to uzbieram rozsądne środki na emeryturę, część w ZUS a drugą  część w OFE. I tak sobie żyłem z przekonaniem bezpiecznej przyszłości przez 15 lat. Po tym okresie nastąpiła kolejna reforma emerytalna, która przywróciła po części stary system emerytalny. Rząd zdecydował przenieść z OFE do ZUS, 51,5% zgromadzonych środków, więc po 15 latach gromadzenia środków w OFE moje perspektywy emerytalne znowu wyglądają nie ciekawie.

 

Co dalej robić, jak zareagować, pogodzić się już dziś z niską emeryturą w przyszłości? Pracując kilkanaście lat w finansach jestem w stanie sobie policzyć, że przyszła emerytura wg obecnych zasad nie pozwoli mi na godne życie „od pierwszego do pierwszego”. Myślę, że jedynym rozwiązaniem jest wzięcie spraw w swoje ręce i rozpoczęcie oszczędzania na przyszłą emeryturę indywidualnie. Najważniejszą kwestią w oszczędzaniu jest systematyczność, comiesięczne wpłaty nawet niewielkich kwot w perspektywie kilku lub nawet kilkudziesięciu lat pozwolą na zgromadzenie znacznego kapitału. Musiałem policzyć jaka kwota miesięcznie może być przeznaczona na ten cel tak żeby nie obciążać znacznie miesięcznego domowego budżetu, a następnie wybrać formę oszczędzania. Obecnie na rynku istnieje kilka form oszczędzania na przyszłą emeryturę, samą istotą działania nie różnią się one znacznie od siebie jednak jak zwykle diabeł tkwi w szczegółach na które należy szczególnie zwrócić uwagę (to jednak temat na oddzielną dyskusję). Największą uwagę skupiłem na trzech formach jedna to Pracowniczy Program Emerytalny proponowany przez pracodawcę najlepszy bo finansowany przez niego ale po zmianie pracy nowy pracodawca nie musi oferować takiego programu, druga to IKE (Indywidualne Konto Emerytalne) gdzie nie jest naliczany podatek „Belki” czyli w przyszłości nie zapłacę podatku od zysków kapitałowych, a trzecia to IKZE (Indywidualne Konto Zabezpieczenia Emerytalnego) gdzie bieżące wpłaty do wysokości rocznego limitu odpiszę od dochodu przez co obniżę zapłacony podatek czyli wymierna korzyść już dziś (no może jutro czyli po rozliczeniu PIT).

 

Więc pytanie nie powinno brzmieć nie czy oszczędzać na przyszłą emeryturę tylko który program wybrać. Osobiście proponuję trzy. Jeżeli pracodawca oferuje udział w PPE to należy z niego skorzystać (nieskorzystanie to jak odmówienie przyjęcia premii), jeżeli chcemy zapłacić niższy podatek to nie ma innej korzystniejszej formy niż IKZE, a jeżeli inwestujemy na giełdzie to poprzez IKE nie zapłacimy podatku od zysków kapitałowych.

 

Jak widać przyszłe emerytury nie muszą być niskie, ale o ich wysokość musimy zadbać sami.

 

Autor Marian Kopa

Finansista z ponad 20 letnim stażem w instytucjach finansowych. Jego kariera zawodowa koncentruje się wokół instytucji wspólnego inwestowania. Od 1998 roku zatrudniony w PTE PZU S.A.. Absolwent Warszawskiej Szkoły Biznesu, kierunek Ekonomia.

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